THE DOWN RATCHET
AND
THE DETERIORATION OF TANKER NEWBUILDING STANDARDS

Jack Devanney and Mike Kennedy


      Copyright © 2002  Center for Tankship Excellence
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
      under the terms of the  Gnu Free Documentation License (GFDL) Version 1.2
      or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
      with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
1. LOADING CONDITIONS
2. DOUBLE HULL FLOODING
3. LIGHTWEIGHT GAMES
4. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING
5. INTERPRETING FINITE ELEMENT RESULTS
6. STRUCTURE THAT FLOWS
7. FATIGUE ANALYSIS
8. TANK SIZE
9. THE DOWN RATCHET
10. CALIBRATION FACTORS
11. FOREBODY AND AFTBODY
12. WELDING
13. MAIN ENGINE SHAFTING
14. SHAFT ALIGNMENT
15. SUMMARY