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Precis File
SHIP NAME: Independenta KEY: NUM. ENTRIES: 6
source LMIU
type C
volume
material
dead
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Collision, explosion, on fire, broke in two, aground Nov 15 1979 in 40 59.39 N 29 00.28 E Further explosions Nov 19-Dec 7 Fire burnt out Dec 14.


source OSCH
type A
volume 687785B
material es sider crude
dead
link

On the morning of November 15, 1979, the Independenta and the Evrialy collided at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus. The Independenta exploded and both vessels began to burn. The Independenta grounded a half of a mile from the port of Hydarpasa. The tanker burned until December 14. The Independenta was carrying 714,760 barrels of Es Sider crude oil.

Es Sider crude oil has an API gravity of 36.7, and a pour point of 30 degrees F. Little oil was found on the water, and it was surmised that the majority of the oil had burned on the tanker. Any slicks of oil probably drifted into the Sea of Marmara and dissipated. From November 17 to November 27, there was slight leakage from the vessel. The vessel suffered another major explosion on December 6, resulting in more oil spilled. The slick from the vessel drifted towards the port of Hydarpasa, and despite booms across its entrance, approximately 380 barrels of oil entered the harbor.

The Turkish Navy attempted to extinguish the fire early in the incident, but the intensity of the fire caused these efforts to be abandoned. The Director of the Marmara Sea District took over the spill on November 19, and the Navy withdrew. International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. (ITOPF) personnel came on scene on November 17. The Turkish government refused permission for overflights, and all pollution surveys were conducted by boat. Little pollution was found and the ITOPF personnel left on November 27. Explosions onboard the vessel on the night of December 6, prompted the return of ITOPF personnel on December 10. Surveys after the fire had extinguished itself revealed that there was no further leakage from the vessel. Approximately 15,240 barrels of oil were left on the vessel. It was surmised that the majority of the oil on the tanker had burned.


source ETC
type D
volume 687785B
material libyan crude
dead
link


source HOOKE
type D
volume
material
dead 42
link

Says Romanian MT Independenta had 94,600 tons of Libya crude on board. Ship was a 147,000 dwt. Puts site at four miles south of Haydarpasa at the entrance to the Bosporus from the Sea of Marmara. Greek master of Evrialy, Alekos Adamapoulos, and seven crew members were charged with "carelessness, negligence, and non-compliance with the rules of international navigation." But Hooke gives no details and master was released seven months later ater paying a $850 fine.


source Fairplay, 1986-07-17ETC
type D
volume
material
dead
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1986 article indicates Independenta was found at fault. Romania has refused steadfastly to pay compensation to the Greek authorities for the damage caused by the the accident. Turkey is claiming about 200 million dollars from the Romanian government for damage and oil spill clean-up work. But article does not cite any court case.


source CTX
type C
volume 95000T
material
dead 43
link

ITOPF puts spill at 95,000T. Platts says 94,000T.

Collision in the Sea of Marmara at the south end of Bosporus. 43 people killed. It was night, but no cause info at this point. We cant even say for sure whether the ships were on reciprocal courses. At this time, there was no requirement for daytime passage of big tankers, pilotage, nor escort tugs.

You would think that a 147,000 ton tanker built in 1978 would be inerted. But she may not have been. The IMO requirement for new ships started with ships contracted for in mid-1979, and did not apply to existing ships of this size until mid-1983.

Not in Cahill. We dont know tracks, we dont know cause, we dont know damage. We don't know if Indepententa was inerted. It is sadly preposterous, how little we know about a casualty that killed over 40 and put 95,000 tons of oil into the environment.